VV. AA. (2024)

This book brings together 18 theoretical and empirical chapters that analyse the role of emotion (expression, perception, processing) and identity (notions and representations, construction, conflict) in the process of learning a second language. Studies on the differences in emotionality between L1 and L2 suggest that in L2 there is an alteration that, in many cases, manifests itself as a decrease in the affective load, which can lead to a certain indifference to the emotional content transmitted and to a lesser involvement in communication. It is also known that emotion plays a fundamental role in the construction of identity in a second language in the shaping of the self that feels and communicates and in the ability to cope with the learning process.

Most of the studies have focused on the understanding of these issues in balanced bilingual speakers, but there is little evidence on their functioning in speakers with other degrees of proficiency (the case of second language learners) and on their role in the learning process. Better understanding this question is fundamental for the improvement of everything related to second language acquisition. We need new and innovative approaches that lead to more effective programs, increased interest in language learning and the consolidation of multilingual societies.


Processing of emotionality in languages

The effects of emotionality on syntactic processing: Neural and behavioural evidence

Acquisition, assessment and processing of emotional words in children

Words and emotions in healthy and pathological aging

The impact of language proficiency, cultural contact and attitudes on valence and arousal in Spanish as a second language

The effect of language status, immersion and cultural integration level on the emotionality of emotion words in Spanish

Processing accented speech in foreign language learning: Support for exemplar-based memory models in spoken language processing

Unconscious attention and facial expressions in the retrieval of L2 lexical memory

Emotional communication in second languages

Writing about positive and negative topics in Spanish as a heritage or second language

Emotions and identities in linguistic autobiographies: Uncovering Spanish heritage speakers’ critical language awareness

Expressing the cause of emotions in Spanish L1/L2: Forms and meanings

Gamification as a methodological strategy for the development of emotional competence in Spanish as a foreign language: Academic self-efficacy, achievement emotions and language learning

Emotionality and identity construction in L2 learning

The perception of identity and emotionality in Spanish L2

Self-evaluation, self-assessment and self-concept in a native or foreign language

‘When I speak in Spanish, I’m not myself’: The development of linguistic identity in learners of Spanish in non-immersion contexts

Linguistic identities and emotions in the construction and development of the language learner interself

A performative language teaching approach in connection with emotion and identity

VV. AA. (2024)

New quantitative methodology and the development of corpus and experimental linguistics tools have recently made researching lexical comprehension and production more accessible. While several tools and data sets are available in English (Coh-metrix, CELEX) and a few other languages, the development of resources and empirical research is still lacking in Spanish.

This volume brings together original empirical research and theoretical perspectives that examine lexical development in Spanish L1, L2 and L3, with a focus on different teaching approaches and textbook coverage of Spanish lexicon in L2 curricula and the use of corpus linguistics in methodological investigations. Some questions addressed include the role of lexical development in mapping grammatical acquisition phases, the potential transfers of L1 to L2 lexical abilities, the effect of explicit vocabulary learning techniques in L2, how affective meaning modulates L2 acquisition, or how a typological understanding of lexical organization can help in teaching more effectively the lexicon of a language, among many others.

The book offers an overview of what is currently being done in the field of Spanish lexical acquisition through a myriad of approaches and topics.





Section I: Lexicon at the crossroads: The interplay of lexicon with other areas of language

Chapter 1 The trajectory of Spanish vocabulary studies and challenges ahead
Laura Marqués-Pascual and Irene Checa-García

Chapter 2 The role of the lexicon in language acquisition: An issue in need of study
Milagros Fernández-Pérez and Miguel González-Pereira

Chapter 3 The relationship between self-rated vocabulary knowledge and accuracy of phonological forms
Danielle Daidone

Section II: Measures of lexical competence and development in Spanish

Chapter 4 Individual lexical breadth and its associated measures. A contribution to the calculation of individual lexical richness
Juan-Andrés Villena-Ponsoda, Antonio-Manuel Ávila-Muñoz and José-María Sánchez-Sáez

Chapter 5 L1 to L2 lexical development transfer? A within subjects study on lexical richness measures
Irene Checa-García and Austin Schafer

Chapter 6 Development of lexical deployment as a result of a short-term study abroad experience in Costa Rica
Judith Borràs, Àngels Llanes and Goretti Prieto Botana

Chapter 7 Effects of passive vocabulary knowledge and task type on lexical sophistication in L2 Spanish writing
Marco Berton and Laura Sánchez

Section III: Attitudes and emotions in the lexicon

Chapter 8 “Learn the rules like a pro, so you can break them like an artist”: On the emotional effects of breaking word-formation rules
Elisabet Llopart-Saumell

Chapter 9 Do L2 Speakers sound strange when using slang? L1 attitudes toward L2 Use of peninsular Spanish colloquial lexical items
Stefan DuBois

Section IV: Approaches to teaching L2 lexicon

Chapter 10 Vocabulary in the L2 Spanish classroom: What students know and what their instructors believe they know
Claudia Helena Sánchez-Gutiérrez, César Hoyos Álvarez and Pablo Robles-García

Chapter 11 Interpreting the designated curriculum: Teachers’ understanding of vocabulary instruction and adherence to the textbook
Nausica Marcos Miguel and Mari Félix Cubas Mora

Chapter 12 Do you really know this word? Dimensions of vocabulary knowledge in Spanish textbooks
Eve C. Zyzik and Laura Marqués-Pascual

Both applied cognitive linguistics (ACL) researchers and linguists, and language instructors and professionals looking for a comprehensive and innovative access to ACL from the direct point of view of applied L2 Pedagogy, will find this Element to be of interest. There is great demand for quality teaching materials, a need for guidance on how to design them and which technology tools are of value. This Element takes a theoretical approach to that design while offering direct examples and tips for practitioners and researchers. Questions about empirical studies are explored, probing prominent empirical research, and the author provides promising evidence to support their recommendations on assetment-task design for future research. Linguists, researchers, linguistics students, graduate academic programs, and teachers of L2 languages alike will find value in this Element.

1. L2 Language Teaching versus the Linguistics of L2
2. The Realized Potential of Applied Cognitive Linguistics
and L2 Instruction 
3. Methodological Aspects and Resources
4. Cognitive Pedagogical Design
5. Cognitive Empirical Design
6. Conclusions

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As emotions research in the field of second language acquisition continues to evolve, it is equally important to explore the impact of social–emotional variables that are specifically relevant to heritage language (HL) contexts. Anchoring on foundations in critical heritage language education (HLE), this study examines the discomforts of the HL classroom from a diverse heritage speaker (HS) perspective. Additionally, comforts that support the HL classroom as a safe space for emotional security and well-being for HSs across HLs are explored. Examining the HL classroom from the perspective of HL practices and knowledge systems, this study ultimately aims to: (a) outline the emotional complexity of HL pedagogical spaces, and (b) provide concrete and meaningful recommendations for supporting HS well-being and HL development from a transformative positive psychology lens. Data for the current qualitative study were provided through two separate methodologies. First, 64 HSs of Spanish responded to a qualitative questionnaire probing the emotional reactions and memories instigated by authentic HL classroom reading material on sensitive topics of racism, bilingualism, and immigration. The themes identified in written narrative data through an inductive thematic approach were then used as a foundation for semistructured interviews with language learners (n = 6) and educators (n = 8) from eight different HL backgrounds. Findings revealed feelings of comfort and discomfort, and even trauma and healing, in HLE spaces rooted in (a) language learning experiences, (b) social memories of (dis)comfort, and (c) intergenerational histories. Together, the data suggest how the HL classroom can act both as a trigger of social injustice, linguistic insecurity, and family conflict and, at the same time, as a space instigating affective reactions associated with social rebellion, linguistic confidence, intergenerational healing, and emotional refuge. Specific pedagogical recommendations are made to equip educators with a concrete toolkit for the HL classroom.

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En la última década, las posibilidades que ofrecen hoy las TIC han aumentado drásticamente la exposición de los estudiantes a diversos textos digitales que utilizan o a los que están expuestos cuando adquieren una lengua extranjera. Los medios impresos se han visto complementados o incluso a veces sustituidos por los medios digitales en todos los niveles de la enseñanza, incluidos los planes de estudio de la enseñanza superior y universitaria. En los últimos tiempos se han llevado a cabo diversas investigaciones sobre el papel de los medios digitales en la adquisición de L2 y este artículo pretende resumir sistemáticamente los resultados de dichas investigaciones, centrándose específicamente en la comprensión lectora. Esta revisión sistemática sigue las directrices PRISMA (Page et al., 2021). Se han recopilado y analizado los estudios de 2010-2021 de Scopus y de Web of Science que tratan el tema. Sólo se han incluido en la búsqueda estudios experimentales en artículos de revistas de investigación revisados por pares. Aplicando este protocolo de revisión, se seleccionaron 15 trabajos para realizar una síntesis. Los resultados se clasificaron en: (a) efecto de los medios en la comprensión lectora, (b) implicaciones pedagógicas, (c) futuras direcciones de investigación. El estudio concluye con algunas discusiones e implicaciones para investigadores y profesionales desde dos perspectivas: la adquisición básica o fundamental de segundas lenguas (FSLA, en sus siglas en inglés) y la adquisición instruida de segundas lenguas (ISLA, en sus siglas inglés).


The current affordances of ICT have – in the past decade – dramatically increased the exposure of students to the number of various digital texts they use or are exposed to when acquiring an additional language. The print media has been supplemented or even sometimes substituted by the digital media at all levels of education, including higher education and university curricula. Various research has recently been conducted into the role of digital media in L2 acquisition and this paper attempts to systematically summarize the results of this research, with a specific focus on reading comprehension. This systematic review follows the PRISMA guidelines (Page et al., 2021). The 2010-2021 studies from Scopus and the Web of Science dealing with the topic have been collected and analysed. Only experimental studies in peer-reviewed research journal papers have been included in the search. By applying this protocol review, 15 papers were selected for a synthesis. The results were classified as: (a) effect of media on reading comprehension, (b) pedagogical implications, (c) future research directions. The study concludes with some discussion and implications for researchers and practitioners from two perspectives: basic or fundamental Second Language Acquisition (FSLA) and instructed Second Language acquisition (ISLA).

VV. AA. (2013)

The World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS) is a large database of structural (phonological, grammatical, lexical) properties of languages gathered from descriptive materials (such as reference grammars) by a team of 55 authors.

The first version of WALS was published as a book with CD-ROM in 2005 by Oxford University Press. The first online version was published in April 2008.

The 2013 edition of WALS corrects a number of coding errors especially in Chapters 1 and 3. A full list of changes is available  here.

Starting with the 2013 edition of WALS, we will release and publish sets of corrections periodically. Thus, any citation of WALS Online 2013 should include the particular version, as listed on Zenodo.

WALS Online is a publication of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. It is a separate publication, edited by Dryer, Matthew S. & Haspelmath, Martin (Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 2013). The main programmer is Robert Forkel.

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At the turn of the new millennium, in an article published in Language Teaching Research in 2000, Dörnyei and Kormos proposed that ‘active learner engagement is a key concern’ for all instructed language learning. Since then, language engagement research has increased exponentially. In this article, we present a systematic review of 20 years of language engagement research. To ensure robust coverage, we searched 21 major journals on second language acquisition (SLA) and applied linguistics and identified 112 reports satisfying our inclusion criteria. The results of our analysis of these reports highlighted the adoption of heterogeneous methods and conceptual frameworks in the language engagement literature, as well as indicating a need to refine the definitions and operationalizations of engagement in both quantitative and qualitative research. Based on these findings, we attempted to clarify some lingering ambiguity around fundamental definitions, and to more clearly delineate the scope and target of language engagement research. We also discuss future avenues to further advance understanding of the nature, mechanisms, and outcomes resulting from engagement in language learning.

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This study set out to re-examine the effectiveness of study abroad programs in second language (L2) acquisition through a multi-level meta-analysis. Overall, 42 primary studies published between 1995 and 2019 were identified, and in total 283 effect sizes were meta-analysed. This study implemented a three-level random effects model to account for the clustered, mutually dependent effect sizes often nested in the primary studies of L2 study abroad research. The results indicated a medium-to-large effect (g = 0.87) on study abroad language programs. Essentially, the featured moderators in general explained more heterogeneity variances at level 3 (i.e. the between-study level) than at level 2 (i.e. the within study level). For study abroad language learners, language acquisition is optimal when learners, in particular those of a lower proficiency level, take both formal and content-based language courses while living with host families. Learners’ age and pre-program training may not moderate the effectiveness of study abroad language programs. Importantly, this study further established that the length of study abroad programs are positively associated with learners’ language gains, but that an extended and prolonged domestic program does not necessarily lead to such gains. Research and pedagogical implications are further discussed based on the research findings.

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World language teachers have historically relied on the notion of teaching methods to inform elements of design and procedure in their instructional practice. Teacher beliefs about teaching methods, however, have been shown to be significantly influenced by their context, including their institution and their learners. This phenomenon has led some scholars to identify a postmethod condition, where teachers prioritize making responsive, principled decisions about instruction based on their context. This qualitative study investigated the patterns and realities of the postmethod condition in practice through the lens of teacher beliefs about teaching methods, focusing on ten secondary-level world language teachers of French and Spanish in the USA. Data sources included a survey about teaching methods, in-depth interviews, and classroom observations. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, multiple phases of coding, and integrating analysis of the three sources. Findings indicated that teachers in this group largely identified as adhering to one main teaching approach, with eight of the ten self-identifying as using primarily comprehensible input and/or TPRS (Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling) methods. However, through investigating their beliefs about grammar and accuracy; the four skills of reading, writing, listening, and speaking; the importance of input and output; and instructional flow, we found that the teachers examined and reexamined their teaching methods regularly, largely due to the influences of their learners and their institution. The relationship between the teachers’ beliefs and practices was mediated by context-driven instructional decision-making, indicating the presence of a postmethod condition.

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Glossing is a widely used and examined vocabulary learning tool, and one of the major branches of glossing research has compared the relative effects of first language (L1) and second language (L2) glosses on reading comprehension and vocabulary learning. However, the findings in this literature have not been consistent, calling for a comprehensive and systematic review. To this end, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the relative effects of L1 and L2 glossing on L2 reading comprehension and L2 vocabulary learning. Based on 78 effect sizes gathered from 26 studies representing 30 independent samples (N = 2,189), we found that L1 glossing was more effective than L2 glossing in general (Hedge’s g = .33, SE = .09, p < .001), but the effect size may vary depending on the target outcome measure. The relative effectiveness of L1 glossing was particularly supported by the results of immediate posttests of vocabulary, rather than delayed posttests of vocabulary and reading comprehension tests. Further, among a few selected moderator variables, the results of meta-regression revealed that learners’ L2 proficiency level significantly influenced the average effectiveness, such that L1 glossing is particularly effective for beginner learners compared to those with intermediate or higher L2 proficiency levels.

Versión digital

El Glosario de términos gramaticales es un recurso didáctico que la Real Academia Española y la Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española ponen a disposición de los docentes de lengua de todos los países hispanohablantes. Los objetivos fundamentales de esta obra son los siguientes:

  • Contribuir a mejorar la formación gramatical de cuantos enseñan español en los cursos previos a la universidad.
  • Explicar y justificar la terminología gramatical que puede adaptarse a esos niveles de la enseñanza, así como ayudar a que los docentes la manejen con destreza y propiedad.
  • Mejorar el conocimiento de las estructuras gramaticales y de su relación con los significados que expresan.
  • Simplificar didácticamente las nociones más complejas, aclarar las tradicionales e introducir algunos conceptos modernos, ampliamente usados en la actualidad, que resultan de granutilidad para analizar la gramática de nuestra lengua.
  • Contribuir a que la enseñanza de la gramática constituya una tarea más reflexiva y menos mecánica de lo que a veces resulta ser.

El presente Glosario contiene...

  • definiciones, descripciones y aclaraciones didácticas;
  • abundante ejemplificación;
  • términos cercanos y equivalentes en varios modelos de análisis;
  • términos relacionados conceptualmente con el que se define;
  • presentaciones didácticas en las que se separa sistemáticamente la información fundamental de la complementaria;
  • referencias a cuestiones normativas en los artículos pertinentes;
  • remisiones internas para relacionar unos conceptos con otros;
  • esquemas con clasificaciones detalladas de las clases de palabras y las relaciones sintácticas;
  • tablas que resumen las propiedades morfológicas y sintácticas de muchas voces gramaticales;
  • referencias a los apartados pertinentes de las dos principales gramáticas de referencia del español publicadas en los últimos años.


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Multimodal input – which combines written, auditory, and/or visual modalities – is pervasive in everyday life and could serve as a source of rich input in language teaching. In recent years, research has determined that vocabulary learning is one of the clear benefits of being exposed to such input. Regrettably, only a handful of studies have investigated whether and how second language (L2) teachers approach multimodal input in teaching. To further contribute to the research–practice dialogue, we examined factors that influence L2 teachers’ use of multimodal input in L2 teaching. This qualitative case study presents an in-depth analysis of interview data derived from 21 practitioners in various L2 teaching contexts globally. Following three rounds of data analysis, 24 factors were identified and are presented in four themes. The results indicate that teachers: (1) paid close attention to their students’ needs and goals; (2) drew on their own learning and teaching experiences and training supported by research-based practices; (3) relied on sound pedagogical principles; and (4) faced a number of contextual challenges relevant to their curricula and teaching contexts.

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Classroom studies have shown that learning new vocabulary from reading can be enhanced if the reading task is followed by a word-focused activity, such as a fill-in-the-blank activity. However, little is known about: (1) whether a post-reading word-focused activity can also positively affect vocabulary uptake in out-of-classroom contexts when there is no instructor support, (2) whether vocabulary gains differ based on proficiency levels, and (3) whether awareness of an upcoming post-reading word-focused activity influences learning gains. The present study addresses these issues by having native (high-proficient) or nonnative (L2 high-intermediate) English speakers read a narrative containing 16 recurring non-word target items. Within each proficiency group, one subgroup of participants was instructed that they would be given the word-focused activity after they finished reading, another subgroup was not. Participants then engaged in a word-focused activity that involved either the non-word target items or real words from the narrative. Finally, all participants were given a vocabulary test. We found that, compared to the real-word activity, the target-item activity led to significantly greater vocabulary gains, especially for the L2 high-intermediate learners, regardless of whether or not participants were forewarned of an upcoming word-focused activity.

VV. AA. (2023)

The NFLRC is pleased to announce our new Teaching and Learning Languages in the United States (TELL-US) podcast series. This professional learning series aims to examine language teaching and learning in the U.S. from the perspective of “non-insiders” (i.e., teachers who have had to adapt to the culture of teaching and learning languages in the U.S., having come from a different cultural context). Focusing on two broad categories – language pedagogy and school culture, the goal for this program is to create a professional learning resource for novice LCTL teachers who find themselves teaching in a similar situation. Although the podcasts will focus primarily on the LCTL teacher population, they can also be a valuable resource for any other teachers whose educational formation has taken place outside the U.S. Similarly, the episodes may also provide insights for ELL teachers whose students or students’ parents identify with the cultures of the teachers invited to the show or be helpful to preservice teachers learning the essential tenets of modern world language education in the U.S.

Episode 1: Understanding the American system of education and language education, part 1

Episode 2: Understanding the American system of education and language education, part 2

Episode 3: What is proficiency (proficiency vs. performance)?

Episode 4: Language targets, Can Do statements

Episode 5: Content- and culture-rich target language input that meets and is responsive to the needs of learners

Episode 6: Synthesis, part 1

Episode 7: Synthesis, part 2

This book presents a view of human language as social interaction, illustrating its implications for language learning and second language teaching. The volume advocates for researchers, practitioners, and administrators to rethink and reconceptualize an understanding of language beyond that of the written word to one encompassing social and interactional activity built on co-construction, collaboration, and negotiation. The book emphasizes the ways in which this view of language can shed light on the language learning process as one which draws on discrete linguistic units and constructions in conjunction with a range of temporal, sequential, and embodied resources across a variety of social contexts. In turn, these insights prompt further reflection and discussion on their implications for advancing second language teaching practice. This book will be key reading for scholars interested in second language teaching research, as well as active second language teachers and language program administrators.



Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Research on Language and Interaction Across Disciplines
1.2 Research on Interaction and Second Language Teaching
1.3 On Grammatical Sentences and their Limits
1.4 Action and Sequence: Composition, Position, and Context
1.5 Conclusion

Chapter 2: Understanding interaction
2.1 Basics: Action and Sequence
2.2 Larger Courses of Action
2.3 Why We Talk
2.4 Interaction, Language, and Culture
2.5 Conclusion

Chapter 3: Understanding language learning
3.1 On Learning vs. Teaching
3.2 Language Learning in Children
3.3 Second Language Learning
3.4 Situated Interaction as Driver and Object of Learning
3.5 Language Learning Revisited
3.6 Conclusion

Chapter 4: Understanding interaction in the classroom
4.1 Researching Classroom Interaction
4.2 Shaping Classroom Interaction for Maximizing Learning
4.3 Interaction as Teaching and Learning Target
4.4 Conclusion

Chapter 5: Interaction, language use, and second language teaching
5.1 Main Insights
5.2 Discussion