Bibliografía - adquisición de segundas lenguas

Extended oral production has seldom been used to explore adjectival and verbal agreement in L2 Spanish. This study examines oral narrations to compare the agreement behavior, speech rates, and patterns of errors of highly proficient Spanish heritage and L2 learners (early and late bilinguals, respectively), whose L1 is English, with those of native controls. Although both bilingual groups displayed high agreement accuracy scores, only the early bilinguals performed at or close to ceiling. In addition, the L2 learners spoke significantly more slowly than the heritage and native speakers, who displayed similar speech rates. Explanations accounting for the differences in speech rates and agreement accuracy include age of acquisition of Spanish, syntactic distance between a noun and its adjective, and task effects. All of these factors favored the early bilinguals, enhancing their advantages over L2 learners. Findings suggest that the integrated knowledge and automatic access needed for native-like attainment in agreement behavior in extended oral production is more easily achievable by early than by late bilinguals.

This book presents comprehensive, thorough and updated analyses of key cognitive individual difference factors (e.g., age, intelligence, language aptitude, working memory, metacognition, learning strategies, and anxiety) as they relate to the acquisition, processing, assessment, and pedagogy of second or foreign languages. Critical reviews and in-depth research syntheses of these pivotal cognitive learner factors are put into historical and broader contexts, drawing upon the multiple authors' extensive research experience, penetrating insights and unique perspectives spanning applied linguistics, teacher training, educational psychology, and cognitive science. The carefully crafted chapters provide essential course readings and valuable references for seasoned researchers and aspiring postgraduate students in the broad fields of instructed second language acquisition, foreign language training, teacher education, language pedagogy, educational psychology, and cognitive development.

Frontmatter pdf icon
Acknowledgments pdf icon
Contents pdf icon

Foreword pdf icon
Peter Skehan

1. SLA and Individual Differences: An Overview
Zhisheng (Edward) Wen and Richard L. Sparks

2. The Age Factor and the Critical Period Hypothesis
Adriana Biedron

3. Intelligence
Adriana Biedron

4. Foreign Language Aptitude
Adriana Biedron

5. Language Aptitude, Psychological and Affective Factors

Adriana Biedron

6. Phonological and Executive Working Memory
Zhisheng (Edward) Wen

7. Consciousness, Attention and Noticing
Zhisheng (Edward) Wen

8. Language Learning Strategies
Mark Feng Teng

9. Metacognition
Mark Feng Teng

10. Self-Regulation
Mark Feng Teng

11. L2 Reading and Writing Skills
Richard L. Sparks

12. L2 Learning Difficulties and Disabilities
Richard L. Sparks

13. L2 Anxiety: An Affective Factor or a Linguistic Variable?
Richard L. Sparks

14. Individual Differences in SLA–Looking Back and Looking Forward
Richard Sparks and Zhisheng (Edward) Wen

Author Profiles


A major challenge in language teacher education is finding materials that clearly articulate the common ground among theoretical concepts, research findings, and classroom practices. This book aims to help educators make a direct connection between second language acquisition (SLA) principles and the reality of language classrooms. Rather than trying to address every aspect of SLA and pedagogy, which would result in an overwhelming amount of information, the goal of this book is to help world language educators understand how they can develop materials or implement classroom strategies that are informed by core principles of SLA. This book was authored with language educators in mind, first and foremost. Key concepts are explained in a straightforward way, as if the authors were having a conversation with the readers. Each chapter is divided into the following sections:

  • What Do I Need to Know? This section presents must-know information and concepts that should guide pedagogical practices. 
  • What Does It Look Like in the Classroom? This section provides several examples to help readers visualize how to apply the principles and ideas discussed in the first section.
  • Now That You Know: This section includes reflection, expansion, and application questions that could be used in a course, a reading group, or just to ignite a conversation via social media.

This chapter introduces the rationale behind a social network analytic (SNA) approach in the context of second language acquisition (SLA). The conceptual overview presents ways of operationalising social graphs and common metrics used in the calculations, supported by illustrative examples. We then argue for merging quantitative SNA with qualitative data. Subsequently, we showcase findings from the PEERLANG project (Paradowski et al., 2021) investigating the influence of peer out-of-class interactions on SLA in two different contexts: among international participants in intensive summer language courses (multilingual “immersion” scenario), and stationary foreign language majors (“no immersion”). We reveal patterns emerging from both contexts, demonstrating the role that mobility plays in network dynamics, and how both factors together moderate language attainment. We show that the impact of peer learner networks on L2 acquisition can be both positive and negative, depending on the context and the network layer involved. Computational and anthropological SNA offers a novel methodology for investigating the link between social relations and language acquisition (especially L2 production).

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La presente memoria de investigación constituye un acercamiento a la Lingüística Aplicada a la enseñanza de idiomas a través de sus orígenes y del nacimiento de los primeros estudios científicos, siguiendo las principales líneas de investigación hasta nuestro siglo. De este modo, el trabajo se inicia con unas consideraciones sobre la adquisición de segundas lenguas en el contexto de la Lingüística Aplicada, y a continuación aborda los inicios de la investigación de la mano del Análisis Contrastivo, el Análisis de Errores y los trabajos sobre Interlengua. La segunda mitad del trabajo trata de las orientaciones actuales de la investigación, centrada en el Análisis de la Actuación, el Análisis del Discurso, el estudio de las variables del aprendiz y el enfoque social de los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje de idiomas.

En Normas 5

El  presente  artículoes  el  resultado  de  una  investigación  pilotada  entre  estudiantes universitarios que pretende observar qué método gramatical, explícito o implícito, es más eficaz en el aprendizaje y adquisición de una L2. El estudio de campo se ha realizado en dos grupos de estudiantes  homogéneos  y  paralelos  en  el  marco  de  la  asignatura Español  económico  y empresarial. Para  ello  se  han  diseñado  materiales  idénticos  en  el  contenido  y  con  un  enfoque por tareas, pero con un método de gramática distinto en cada uno de los grupos, de forma que pudiera llevarse a cabo una visión contrastiva de los resultados.

En  el  artículo  se  plantea  un  marco  teórico,  se  describe  cómo  se  han  diseñado  los materiales  y  cuáles  son  los  resultados  obtenidos.  Finalmente,  se  contrastan  los  resultados  que serán significativos para que los estudiantes pueden maximizar la adquisición de conocimiento a lo largo del proceso de aprendizaje-enseñanza. Gracias al trabajo de campo se evidencia que el   uso   de   gramática   implícita   mejora   exponencialmente   el   rendimiento   académico   del alumnado, no solo a corto plazo.

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