Bibliografía - aprendizaje en línea

Las redes sociales están modificando la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de idiomas, generando prácticas educativas desconocidas hasta hoy. En este contexto, presentamos el primer estudio empírico en cualquier idioma sobre el aprovechamiento de la red de voz Clubhouse, para enseñar y aprender español. Nuestras preguntas de investigación son: cuáles son las prácticas formativas empleadas en esta red y qué estrategias discursivas utilizan los moderadores para llevarlas a cabo. Nuestros datos proceden de la escucha participante (45h), la grabación de sesiones (2,5h), las entrevistas a 8 moderadores y la recolección de objetos culturales, que procesamos con análisis del contenido y del discurso y triangulación de fuentes. Los resultados distinguen varias salas (planificada, semiplanificada y espontánea), desde clases formales hasta debates abiertos o presentación y comentario de poemas y canciones. Los moderadores tienden a conversacionalizar el discurso, preferir recursos orales y limitar la terminología, además de elegir entre seis estrategias de corrección (omisión, andamiaje, directa, indirecta, cooperación y traducción) para gestionar los errores según la sala. Estos resultados ofrecen directrices y ejemplos para la docencia de español y permiten concluir que Clubhouse tiende a adaptar a sus características orales diversas prácticas culturales y educativas presenciales.

Higher education has seen an increase in enrollment in online (OL) language courses. This study (n = 176) examined why students chose to enroll in OL Spanish courses and if foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) in OL classes affects overall oral proficiency. Sex differences and FLCA in online Spanish classes were also examined. Quantitative methods included an online survey and a third-party proficiency exam, Versant for Spanish Test. Findings suggest that students do not register for OL Spanish courses to avoid speaking; however, a majority of OL Spanish students appear to suffer from FLCA. These students reported being anxious about a variety of scenarios in their OL language courses including the tests, large class size, lack of understanding or remembering the course material, and making speaking mistakes. Analyses of oral proficiency coupled with the responses to the survey showed that OL FLCA negatively correlated with oral proficiency. Notably, there was no significant difference between male and female students in self-reported FLCA.

The growing popularity of online language learning means that both experienced language professionals and novices are developing and delivering all or part of their language classes online. This study set out to query practicing online language educators as to how they view themselves; that is, their professional vision of themselves and their craft. One hundred seventy-four online language educators responded to a survey, nine of whom also participated in a synchronous online interview. Responses to questions regarding professional vision varied by stance (teacher-, student-, content-, and medium-centric) with the majority of respondents reporting viewing themselves chiefly as student-centered in their work. Pervasive descriptors of professional vision—comprised of individual stances and qualities, along with how these are enacted in practice—paint a vibrant picture of professionalism in online language education. Respondents report valuing authentic and multimodal affordances, opportunities for tailored instruction/feedback, and highly productive interactions with students, interactions otherwise not feasible in live classrooms. Variations in professional vision are discussed along with implications for online language educator support and development.